Food production project dogs and cats- مشروع إنتاج طعام الكلاب والقطط

December 22, 2019


Food production project dogs and cats- مشروع إنتاج طعام الكلاب والقطط

الغذاء الجاف للكلاب والقطط :

هو الغذاء وضع خصيصا والمخصصة للاستهلاك من قبل الكلاب والقطط وغيرها من الأنياب. تعتبر الكلاب آكلة للحوم فلديهم الأسنان الحادة والمدببة والمسالك الهضمية الأقصر من الحيوانات الأخرى الآكلة للحوم ، وهي مناسبة لاستهلاك اللحوم أكثر من المواد النباتية ، ولكن لديها أيضًا 10 جينات مسؤولة عن هضم النشا والجلوكوز ، وكذلك القدرة على إنتاج الأميليز ، وهو إنزيم يعمل على تحطيم الكربوهيدرات إلى سكريات بسيطة - شيء تفتقر إليه الحيوانات آكلة اللحوم. تمكنت الكلاب من التكيف على مدى آلاف السنين للبقاء على بقايا اللحوم وغير اللحوم وبقايا الوجود البشري والازدهار على مجموعة متنوعة من الأطعمة ، مع الدراسات التي تشير إلى أن قدرة الكلاب على هضم الكربوهيدرات بسهولة قد يكون الفرق الرئيسي بين الكلاب و الذئاب ..

Dog food :

Is food specifically formulated and intended for consumption by dogs and other related canines. Dogs are considered to be omnivores with a carnivorous bias. They have the sharp, pointed teeth and shorter gastrointestinal tracts of carnivores, better suited for the consumption of meat than of vegetable substances, yet also have 10 genes that are responsible for starch and glucose digestion, as well as the ability to produce amylase, an enzyme that functions to break down carbohydrates into simple sugars - something that carnivores lack. Dogs have managed to adapt over thousands of years to survive on the meat and non-meat scraps and leftovers of human existence and thrive on a variety of foods, with studies suggesting dogs' ability to digest carbohydrates easily may be a key difference between dogs and wolves.

Commercial varieties :

Most commercially produced dog food is made with animal feed grade ingredients and comes dry in bags or wet in cans. Dry food contains 6–10% moisture by volume, as compared to 60–90% in canned food. Semi-moist products typically run 25–35%. Isotopic analysis of dog food in the Brazilian market have found that they are basically made of maize and poultry by-products.

Dry food :    


Dry dog food usually consists of bagged kibble that contains 3-11% water. It makes up the vast majority of pet foods.

Dry food is both convenient and typically inexpensive, with over $8 billion worth being sold in 2010 – a 50% increase over just seven years earlier.

Manufacturing dry food dogs process :

Dry food processing is popular in the pet food industry, as it is an efficient way to supply continuous production of feed in many varieties. It is energy efficient, allows for large amounts of feed to be used, and is cost effective.

To make dog kibble, a process known as extrusion is done. A simple extruder consists of a barrel, helical screws, and a die (tool to cut and shape food). Feed ingredients are solid at room temperature; therefore, the extrusion process of these ingredients requires a temperature above 100 degrees Celsius, achieved by the use of steam, hot water, or other heat sources in order to soften or melt the mixture and allow for fluidity through the barrel. During the extrusion process, the high amounts of pressure applied to the mixture forces it to enter through the die before exiting the extruder completely, where it is cut to its desired size by a rotating fly knife.

Unfortunately, the extrusion process actually denatures some of nutritional elements of the food. Taurine deficiency has been found in dogs and cats fed extruded commercial diets. Not usually considered an essential nutrient for dogs, taurine is plentiful in most whole meats, whether raw or cooked but is reduced in extruded diets. Taurine deficiency could also be due to the use of rendered, highly processed meat sources that are low in taurine. Regardless of the cause, taurine is now artificially supplemented back into the diet after processing in the production of most commercial pet food.

Quality, digestibility and energy density :

There are a few key components to consider when evaluating dietary needs. These factors include the quality and digestibility of the protein provided in the diet, as well as the composition of the amino acids included, and finally the energy density provided in the diet. Diets containing proteins that are high in quality, composition, and digestibility require less of that protein to be present. The same can be said in regards to the energy density. In contrast, high-protein diets will provide excess protein content after meeting maintenance demands; this can therefore lead to the protein being utilized in fat and energy storage. This ultimately increases the risk for developing obesity and other health related issues. However, higher protein in the diet helps reduce lean body mass loss, but will not lead to an increase in size of muscle unless paired with resistance exercises or anabolic steroids under maintenance conditions.

Labeling :

In the United States, dog foods labelled as "complete and balanced" must meet standards established by the Association of American Feed Control Officials , either by meeting a nutrient profile or by passing a feeding trial. The Dog Food Nutrient Profiles were last updated in 2016 by the Canine Nutrition Expert Subcommittee.

Critics argue that due to the limitations of the trial and the gaps in knowledge within animal nutrition science, the term "complete and balanced" is inaccurate and even deceptive. An panel expert has stated that "although the profiles are better than nothing, they provide false securities."

Certain manufacturers label their products with terms such as "premium", "ultra premium", "natural", and "holistic". Such terms currently have no legal definitions and are not regulated. There are also varieties of dog food labeled as "human-grade food." Although no official definition of this term exists, the assumption is that other brands use foods that would not pass US Food and Drug Administration inspection according to the Pure Food and Drug Act or the Meat Inspection Act. The ingredients on the label must be listed in descending order by weight before cooking. This means before all of the moisture is removed from the meat, fruits, vegetables and other ingredients used.





















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